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Home » News » product News » Laser cutting machine principle - cutting method

Laser cutting machine principle - cutting method

Views:9     Author:Site Editor     Publish Time: 2019-06-08      Origin:Site

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I vaporization cutting


It means that the removal of the material to be processed is mainly carried out by vaporizing the material.


In the vaporization cutting process, under the action of the focused laser beam, the temperature of the workpiece rapidly rises to the vaporization temperature, and the material is vaporized in a large amount, and the formed high pressure vapor is sprayed outward at supersonic speed. At the same time, a "hole" is formed in the laser action area, and the laser beam is reflected in the hole multiple times, so that the absorption of the material by the laser is rapidly increased.




During the high-speed steam high-speed spraying, the melt in the slit is simultaneously blown away from the slit until the workpiece is cut. The internal vaporization cutting is mainly carried out by means of vaporizing the material, so the required power density is high, and generally should be 10 or more square watts per square centimeter.


Nonmetal Laser Cutting Machine is a method of laser cutting some low-flame materials (such as wood, carbon and certain plastics) and refractory materials (such as ceramics). Vaporization cutting is also often used when cutting materials with pulsed lasers.


II reaction melt cutting


In the melt cutting. If the auxiliary air flow not only blows away the melt in the slit, but also reacts with the workpiece to change the heat, the cutting process is increased by another heat source. Such cutting is called reactive melting cutting. The gas that normally reacts with the workpiece is oxygen or a mixture of oxygen.


When the surface temperature of the workpiece reaches the ignition temperature, a strong combustion exothermic reaction occurs, which greatly improves the laser cutting ability. For low carbon steel and stainless steel, the energy provided by the combustion exothermic reaction is 60%. For active metals such as titanium, the energy provided by combustion is approximately 90%.


Therefore, the reactive melt cut requires a lower laser power density than the laser vaporization cut, the general melt cut, which is only 1/20 of the vapor cut and 1/2 of the melt cut. However, in the reaction melt cutting, the internal combustion reaction causes some chemical changes in the surface of the material, which may affect the performance of the workpiece.


III melt cutting


In the laser cutting process, if an auxiliary blowing system coaxial with the laser beam is added, the removal of the melt during the cutting process is not solely by the vaporization of the material itself, but mainly by the blowing action of the high-speed auxiliary airflow, and the molten material is Continuously blowing away from the slit, such a cutting process is called melt cutting.


During the melt cutting process, the workpiece temperature no longer needs to be heated above the vaporization temperature, so the required laser power density can be greatly reduced. From the latent heat ratio of melting and vaporization of the material, the laser power required for melt cutting is only 1/10 of that of the vaporization cutting method.


IV laser scribing


This method is mainly used for: semiconductor materials; using a laser beam with a high power density to draw a shallow groove on the surface of the semiconductor material workpiece, since the groove weakens the bonding force of the semiconductor material. The method or the method of vibration causes it to break. The quality of the laser scribe is measured by the size of the surface debris and the heat affected zone.




V cold cutting


This is a new processing method that was proposed with the advent of high-power excimer lasers in the ultraviolet band in recent years. Its basic principle: the energy of ultraviolet photons is similar to that of many organic materials, and such high-energy photons are used to strike and break the bonding bonds of organic materials. Thereby achieving the purpose of cutting. This new technology has broad application prospects, and it is widely used in the electronics industry.


VI thermal stress cutting


The brittle material is heated by the laser beam. The surface is prone to generate large stresses, so that it can be broken by the stress point of laser heating in a neat and fast oil. Such a cutting process is called laser thermal stress cutting. The mechanism of thermal stress cutting is that the laser beam heats a certain area of the brittle material, causing it to produce a distinct temperature gradient.


When the surface temperature of the workpiece is high, expansion occurs. The lower temperature of the inner layer of the workpiece hinders the expansion, and as a result, tensile stress is generated on the surface of the workpiece. The inner layer generates radial compressive stress. When these two stresses exceed the breaking ultimate strength of the workpiece itself. Cracks appear on the workpiece. The workpiece is broken along the crack. The speed of thermal stress cutting - the strand is of the order of m / s. This cutting method is suitable for cutting materials such as glass and ceramics.


Summary: A laser cutting machine is a cutting technique that uses laser characteristics and lens focusing to concentrate energy to melt or vaporize the surface of the material. It can achieve the advantages of good cutting quality, fast speed, many cutting materials and high efficiency. Here are some articles about laser cutting machines and laser technology. Interested children's shoes can be learned.


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